Kainatın Fridman modeli

100

Kainatın inkişafının ümumi qanunauyğunluqları kosmoloji modellərin qurulmasına imkan verir.

Kosmologiya ayrı-ayrı göy cisimləri və onların sistemlərini deyil, bütövlükdə Kainatın quruluşu və inkişafını öyrənir.

Nyuton mexanikasına əsaslanan modeldə Kainat Evklid həndəsəsinə tabe olan sonsuz fəza kimi təsvir olunub. Bu fəzada vaxt həmişə və hər yerdə bərabər sürətlə “axır”. Kainat zaman və məkanca sonsuz olmaqla bircinsdir, yəni Kainatın istənilən yerində orta sıxlıq eynidir. Klassik mexanika qanunlarına əsasən bütün cisimlərin hərəkəti Ümumdünya cazibə qanunu ilə tənzimlənir.

Lakin 1916-cı ildə A.Eynşteyn ümumi nisbilik nəzəriyyəsində zaman və məkan xassələrinin Kainatda materiyanın paylanması və hərəkətindən asılı olduğunu isbat etdi. Bununla da, zaman – məkan xassələrinin Nyuton mexanikasında təsvir edildiyi qədər də sadə və bəsit olmadığı müəyyən edildi. Yeni nəzəriyyəyə əsasən kütləsi böyük olan cazibə mərkəzləri yaxınlığında zamanın sürəti yavaşıyır.

Böyük miqyaslarda məkanın xassələri maddənin orta sıxlığından asılı olur. Orta sıxlıq, böhran sıxlığından az olarsa, Kainat zaman və məkanca sonsuzdur. Belə olduqda, məkan artıq Evklid yox, Lobaçevski  (rus. Николай Иванович Лобачевский) həndəsəsi ilə təsvir edilir.

Lobaçevski həndəsəsinə əsasən, düz xətt xaricindəki nöqtədən onu kəsməyən və onunla bir müstəvidə yerləşən istənilən qədər düz xətt keçirmək mümkündür.

Nisbilik nəzəriyyəsinə əsasən, Kainatın orta sıxlığı böhran sıxlığına bərabər olduğu halda, o Evklid həndəsəsi ilə təsvir edilir.

Orta sıxlıq böhran sıxlığından böyük olarsa, Kainat Riman həndəsəsinin postulatları ilə təsvir olunur. Bu həndəsəyə görə, nöqtədən verilən xəttə paralel bir düz xətt də çəkmək olmaz, yəni Kainat həcmə və kütləyə görə sonludur. Lakin bu heç də o demək deyil ki, Kainatın sərhədi vardır. Riman postulatına misal olaraq kürə səthini göstərmək olar. Deməli, məkan və zamanın xassələri materiya ilə sıx əlaqədardır.

A.Eynşteyn nisbilik nəzəriyyəsinin müddəalarını Kainatın izotrop, bircins və stasionar modelini qurmaq üçün tədbiq edir. Sonuncu model səhv olduğundan Eynşteyn bir nəticə ala bilmir.

1922-ci ildə rus riyaziyyatçısı A.A.Fridman isbat etdi ki, ümumi nisbilik nəzəriyyəsinə əsasən Kainatın zamana görə dəyişən qeyri-stasionar modelini almaq mümkündür. Bununla da, Fridman müasir kosmoloji nəzəriyyələr üçün riyazi özül yaradır. Fridman modelinə görə, Kainatın taleyi materiyanın orta sıxlığından asılıdır. Orta sıxlığın qiymətlərinə uyğun Kainat üçün iki cür model təklif olunur:

Birinci modelə görə, Kainatın orta sıxlığı böhran sıxlığından kiçik və ya ona bərabər olarsa, Kainat məkana görə sonsuz olmalıdır. Bu halda, Kainatın genişlənməsi həmişə davam edəcəkdir. (şəkil 1)

Şəkil 1

İkinci modelə görə, Kainat maddəsinin orta sıxlığı böhran qiymətindən böyük olarsa, materiyanın yaratdığı qravitasiya sahəsi Kainatı məkan üzrə əyir və nəticədə özünə qapayır.  (şəkil 1)

Bu modelə əsasən, Kainat kürənin səthi kimi qeyri-məhdud olsa da, sonludur. Belə halda qravitasiya sahəsi tədricən Kainatın genişlənməsini dayandırır. Kainat yenidən sıxılmağa başlayır.

 

Ədəbiyyat:

Murquzov Mirzəli, Mehdiyev Allahverdi, Abdurazaqov Rasim, Ətayi Ədalət, Zeynalov Rəhim – Astronomiya.

Redaktə etdi: Şəfiqə Babayeva

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