Qalaktika və ulduzların yaranması

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Artist’s impression of a galaxy forming stars within powerful outflows of material blasted out from supermassive black holes at its core. Results from ESO’s Very Large Telescope are the first confirmed observations of stars forming in this kind of extreme environment. The discovery has many consequences for understanding galaxy properties and evolution.

Kainat təkamülünün ilkin mərhələsində, yəni temperaturun 4000 K-dan böyük olduğu vaxtda, elementar zərrəciklər və güclü şüalanmanın qarışığı olan plazma mühitindən ibarət olmuşdur. Bu vaxt şüalanma enerjisi maddə zərrəciklərində (nüvə maddələrində) toplanan enerjidən çox idi.

4000 K-dan aşağı temperaturlarda isə enerjinin əsas hissəsi maddə zərrəciklərində (məsələn, atom nüvəsində) toplanır. Maddənin qalaktikalar və ulduzlar şəklində təşəkkül tapması, nüvələr tərəfindən elektronlar tərəfindən tutulması və atomların yaranması ilə başlayır.

Kainat temperaturunun 3000 K-ya qədər soyuması hidrogen və helium atomlarının əmələ gəlməsi üçün şəraitin başlanğıcı olur. Bu vaxt hidrogen və helium nüvələrinin nisbəti uyğun olaraq, 73% və 27% idi. Sərbəst elektronların azalması hesabına Kainat şəffaflaşır, şüalanma isə maneəsiz və itkisiz çox uzaq məsafələrə qədər yayılmağa başlayır. Kainatın quruluşunun ilk əlamətləri də bircinsli şüalanma fonunda sıxlığın fluktuasiyaları ( Fluktuasiya– qatılığın, sıxlığın və digər fiziki kəmiyyətlərin orta qiymətdən kənara çıxmasıdır. ) şəklində peyda olur.

Qalaktikaların formalaşması Böyük partlayışdan təxminən 3 milyard il sonra başlayır: qravitasiyanın təsiri ilə lap cüzi sıxlıq fluktuasiyaları artmağa və onların paylanması dəyişməyə başlayır. Kainat tədricən məsaməli quruluş alır. Qalaktika və qalaktika topaları bircinsli “boş” mühit ətrafında örtüklər və saplar şəklində sıxlaşır. Tədricən molekulyar buludlar (əsas maddəsi molekulyar şəkildə qazdan ibarət olan ulduzlararası mühit – bulud) və ulduzəmələgəlmə prosesi başlayır. Şəkildə  Orion bürcündə molekulyar buludlar təsvir olunur. Bu buludlarda ulduzəmələgəlmə prosesi indi də davam edir.

Şəkil 1

Bizim Qalaktika Kainatın yaşı 5 milyard il olanda formalaşmışdır. Əvvəl onun forması nəhəng qaz sferası şəklində olmuşdur. Onun daxilində bəzi ulduzlar sferik ulduz topaları kimi qruplaşır. Qazın qalan hissəsi mərkəzi qabarıq hissənin ətrafında disk formasında cəmlənir. Mərkəzi qabarıq hissə ətrafında qalaktika maddəsi spiralşəkilli qollar yaradır.

Kainatın qalaktikalar şəklində formalaşmasının ilk mərhələsində qalaktikalar bir-birinə yaxın olmuşdur. Ona görə də, qalaktikaların toqquşması və birləşmələri bu mərhələdə adi hal idi. Şəkildə Araba təkəri qalaktikası misalında qalaktikaların birləşməsi göstərilir.

Şəkil 2

Qalaktikaların toqquşması, adətən onların spiral qollarının böyüməsinə səbəb olur. Birbaşa toqquşmada qalaktikalar nəhəng bir  qalaktikaya da çevrilə bilir. Gələcəkdə bizim Qalaktika ilə Andromeda dumanlığını belə aqibət gözləyir.

 

 

Ədəbiyyat:

Murquzov Mirzəli, Mehdiyev Allahverdi, Abdurazaqov Rasim, Ətayi Ədalət, Zeynalov Rəhim – Astronomiya.

 

Redaktə etdi: Şəfiqə Babayeva

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