Qısaca: Materializm Nədir?

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Materializm – adından da göründüyü kimi təbiətdə və kainatda olan bütün hadisələrin maddə və onun törəmələri olduğunu və var olan hər şeyin fizika qanunları çərçivəsində baş verdiyini önə sürür. Yəni fizikalizm təbiətdə fövqəltəbii (fizika qanunlarından kənar – cin, mələk, ruh, Tanrı kimi) varlıqların olduğunu qəbul etmir. Hətta materialistlər hisslərimizi belə bir-biri ilə kimyəvi əlaqədə olan atomlarla izah edir.

Materializmlə fizikalizm çox zaman bir arada öyrənilir. Amma bu iki terminin ortaya çıxdığı tarixlər bir az fərqlidir. Belə ki, materializm termini fizikalizmdən daha qədimdir. Fizikalizm sözü isə 1930-cu illərdə Viyana çevrəsindən olan iki filosof – Otto Neyrat (Otto Neurath) və Rudolf Karnap (Rudolf Carnap) tərəfindən işlədilmişdir. Fizikalizmin materializmdən fərqli olduğunu söyləyən filosoflar da vardır. Çünki materializm kainatda olan varlığın əsasının maddə olduğunu söyləsə də, bəzən qravitasiya kimi fiziki qüvvələrin maddi olub olmaması müzakirələr doğurur.

Materializmin tarixi qədim yunan fəlsəfəsinə qədər uzanır, hətta fəlsəfənin qurucularından sayılan Falesin (Thales) iddiaları da materializmi dəstəkləyən özəllikdədir. E.ə. V əsrdə yaşamış Levkipp (Leucippus) və Demokrit (Democritus) qərb fəlsəfəsində materialist ənənəni başladan filosoflar sayılırlar. Levkipp və Demokritdən başqa Epikür (Epikur) və Lukretsi (Lucretius) kimi materialist mütəfəkkirləri də örnək göstərmək olar. Demokritə görə, hər şey bölünməz atomlardan yaranmışdır. Bu atomlar hiss edə bilməyəcəyimiz qədər kiçikdirlər. Onlar bir-biri ilə qarşılıqlı əlaqədədirlər və formalarına görə bir-birinə bağlana bilirlər. Anaksaqorasa (Anaxagoras) görə, isə insan çörəyi yeyir və bu insan ətinə çevrilir. Bu olmalıdır, çünki çörək özündə ətin xassələrini də daşıyır. Anaksaqoras ruhu və insan hisslərini də atomların hərəkəti ilə açıqlayırdı. XIX əsrdə isə alman filosofu Karl Marksın (Karl Marx) araşdırmaları ilə “Dialetik materializm” ortaya çıxdı. Modern dövrümüzdə isə biokimya və fizioloji psixologiyada olan inkişaflar materializmin yenidən maraq görməsinə səbəb oldu. Qorxu, sevgi, şüur kimi anlayışlar müasir elmi baxışlara əsasən kimyəvi proseslərlə yaranır. Şərqdə fəlsəfi məktəb olaraq isə VI əsrdən Hindistanda “Çarvaka məktəbinin” də fikirləri materializm baxımından maraqlıdır.

Müəllif: Sübhan Qulu

Mənbələr: Stanford Universiteti Fəlsəfə Ensklopediyası və Britannika Ensklopediyası.

plato.stanford.edu/entries/physicalism/
www.britannica.com/topic/materialism-philosophy#toc369034main

Redaktə etdi: Fatimə Əliyeva

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