Ferdinand de Saussure (Sasür) kimdir?

98

Ferdinand de Saussure

 

26 noyabr 1857-ci ildə dünyaya gələn Ferdinand de  Sasür (Ferdinand de Saussure) əsilzadə və məşhur, elmdə kök atmış bir ailədəndir.

Azyaşlı Ferdinand əvvəlcə Bern yaxınlığındakı kolleclərdən birinə (Hofwyl college) göndərilir. Sonrakı təhsilini isə Cenevrədəki Martine Universitetində alır. Hələ 15 yaşı tamam olmamış ana dili olan fransız dilindən başqa alman, ingilis, latın və yunan dillərini bilirdi. Elə o illərdə, yəni 1872-ci ildə 15 yaşı olarkən məşhur isveçrəli filoloq Adolf Piktedə (Adolphe Pictet) öz araşdırmasını yollayır. Ferdinand araşdırmasında hər dilin təməlində 2 və ya 3 samitli köklərin olduğunu qeyd edirdi, ancaq Pikted onun cəsarətini və öyrənməyə olan sevigisini müsbət qarşılasa da, bu araşdırmanın bəşəri olmadığını bildirir.

16 yaşı olarkən antik yunancada bəzi burun boşluğu saitlərinin olduğunu anlayır (məsələn, tatos sözündəki a). Onun Herodot(os)u oxuyarkən fərqinə vardığı bu şey qəbul görməsə də, Bruqman(Karl Brugmann) adlı müəllimlərindən biri ancaq 3 il sonra isbat edə bilir.

 

1875-ci ildə Ferdinand Cenevrə Universitetinə (Université de Genève) daxil olur və bir il ərzində kimya və fizika dərsləri ilə məşğul olur. Lakin vaxtının önəmli bir hissəsini sanskritcəni öyrənməyə və dil üzərindəki araşdırmalarına ayırır.

1876-cı ildə Paris Filologiya Qurumuna üzv seçilir və dərc etdiyi məqalələrlə elm dünyasının diqqətini çəkir. Sözü gedən məqalələr bunlardır: “Le suffix-T-“(1876) , “Sur une classe de verbes latins en – eo”(1876)

Elə həmin il oxumaq üçün Laypziqə (Leipziq) gedir. Burada da bir çox araşdırmaları qələmə alır.

Yeni nəsil dilçilərin cərəyan yaratdığı Laypziqdə Ferdinand Sasür alman dili tarixi ilə əlaqədar G.Kurtisin (Georg Curtius) mühazirələrini dinləyir. Arabir Berlinə gedərək orda sanskrit və kelt dilləri üzrə biliyini artırır.

Əhatəsindəki gənc dilçilərlə daima fikir ayrılığı yaşayan Sasür bir çox anlaşılmazlıq yaşasa da, Almaniyada keçirdiyi illər onun üçün çox faydalı olur. Elə bu illər ərzində (1878-1879) Laypziqdə dərc etdirdiyi “Mémoire sur le système primitif des voyelles dans les langues indo-européennes” (Hind-Avropa dillərində saitlərin ibtidai sistemi haqqında araşdırma) adlı əsəri ona dünya səviyyəsində şöhrət qazandırdı. Bu araşdırma tarixi filologiya mövzusundakı ən nüfuzlu araşdırmalar arasında öz yerini tutur, müqayisəli araşdırmalara yeni cığır açır. O dövr üçün məlum olmayan bir çox mövzu aydınlaşır: Hind-Avropa dillərində e/o/a fərqləri, a-nın e,o,a olmaqla üç vurğuya bölündüyü fikrinin səhv olması;

Bu araşdırmanın ardınca Sanskrit dilinə aid araşdırmasını (1880,Cenevrə) edir.

Doktorantura müdafiəsini etdikdən sonra 6 aylıq Litva gəzintisinə çıxan dahi geri dönüşdə Parisə köçür və 11 il ərzində bu şəhərdə yaşayır. Elə birinci ildən etibarən nüfuzlu filoloqların (Breal, Darmesteter) mühazirələrini izləyir. Elə buna görədir ki, 1881-ci ildə  Breal dərslərini Sasürə verir və dahi filoloq elə ilk gündən məşhur professoru uğurla əvəz etməyi bacarır. Müqayisəli şəkildə German linqivistikası və yunan, latın, Litva dillərində dərslər deyir. Elə bu dərslər sayəsində üstün pedaqoqluq qabiliyyəti kəşf edilir. Həmçinin elə bu illər ərzində müxtəlif araşdırmaları ilə diqqət çəkir: “Une loi rythmique de la langue grecque”(1884) (Yunan dilinin nizam qaydası”,”Comparatifs et superlatifs germaniques”(1887)(Alman dilindəki müqayisə və üstünlük sifətləri), “Sur un point de la phonetique des consonnes en indo-europeen”(1887) (Hind-Avropa dillərindəki samitlərin fonetikasına aid bir nöqtə üzərinə)

Hələ də dəqiqləşdirilməmiş səbəblərə görə Sasür 1891-ci ildə Cenevrəyə geri dönür.  İddiaya görə, Paris Universitetində önəmli bir kürsüyə təyin olacağına görə Fransa vətəndaşı olmağa məcbur qalır və hər şeyi buraxıb ölkəsinə geri dönür.

Cenevrə Universitetində ömrünün sonunadək Hind-Avropa və sanskrit dillərindən dərs deyir. Elə bundan sonra yazdığı məqalələrin sayı ilbəil azalır. Hətta dostları ilə belə məktublaşmır. Bu özünə qapanıqlığın səbəbi kimisinə görə, Sasürün hədsiz vasvası olması, kimisinə görə isə elmlə bütünləşmiş həyatına heç uyğunlaşmayan bir qadınla evlənməsi və alkoqolik olması idi. Lakin bütün bunlara baxmayaraq Sasür 1907-ci ilin yanvar ayında səssizliyini pozaraq ümumi dilçilik dərslərinə başlayır. Dərslər 3 il davam edir və 3 il ərzində çox az sayda tələbənin  (birinci il 5, ikinci il 11, üçüncü il 12 tələbə) dərsləri dinləmə imkanı olur. Bu dərslər dünya tarixinə keçər və öz nüfuzunu illər ərzində itirməz. Bütün bunlara baxmayaraq Sasür bu dərsləri kitab halına gətirməz və ona heç bir halda yazılı şəkil verməz. Bu dərslərin bitməsindən qısa zaman sonra (22 Fevral 1913) Ferdinand de Sasür qırtlaq xərçəngindən vəfat edir.

Ümumi Dilçilik Dərsləri

Sasürün mühazirələrindən faydalanan az saylı tələbələr, müəllimlər mühazirələrdən topladıqları qeydləri bir araya gətirib  “Ümumi Dilçilik Dərsləri (Cours de Linquistique Generale)” adlı kitabı ərsəyə gətirirlər. Kitab dünya elm tarixinə adını qızıl hərflərlə yazdırır. Önəmini dərk etməyənlər üçün qeyd edim ki, psixoanaliz üçün Freyd nədirsə, dilçilik üçün də Sasür eyni önəmi daşıyır. Həmçinin Sasür dilçiliyin cəmiyyət əlaqələrində, psixologiyada, mədəniyyətdə və fəlsəfədə önəmini bu qədər əhatəli göstərən ilk şəxs idi və buna görə də Strukturualizmin (red. türkcə araşdıranlar üçün qeyd edim ki, türk dilində buna “yapısalcılık” deyilir) banisi sayılır. Sasürdən sonra dilçi alimlər onun yolundan davam etmiş, xüsusilə müasir dövrdə Noam Xomski (Noam Chomsky) kimi dilçi filosofların öndərliyində inkişaf etdirilmiş və yaxşılaşdırılmışdır. Kitab ilk olaraq yapon dilinə(1928) tərcümə edilmişdir. Daha sonralar alman (1931),  rus (1933),   ispan (1945), polyak (1961), italyan (1967), macar (1967),  türk (1985) dillərinə tərcümə edilmişdir.
Mənbə: Genel Dilbilim Dersleri ,Ferdinand de Saussure(Çeviren Berke Vardar)

 

Tərcümə və əlavələr: Ziya Mehdiyev

Redaktə etdi: Şəfiqə Babayeva

 

 

98 ŞƏRH

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