Pis hadisələri unutmaq üçün spirtli içki içmək işə yarayırmı?

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“‘İçki içməklə əlaqəli problem tam da budur !” deyə düşündüm,özümə bir içki daha süzərkən. Əgər pis bir şey baş verərsə, onu unutmaq üçün içərsən. Əgər yaxşı bir şey olarsa, qeyd etmək üçün içərsən.”

Charles Bukowski “Qadınlar” adlı kitabında içməyi belə təsvir edirdi.

Spirtli içki istehlakının ən populyar olan vaxtları, Bukowskinin də dediyi kimi, nəyisə qeyd edərkən və pis hadisələrdən sonrakı zamanlardır. Sonuncu daha maraqlıdır. Spirtli içki beynin fəaliyyətinə təsir etdiyinə görə, içən şəxs məntiqli düşünməkdə çətinlik çəkir, yaddaşı zəifləyir . Beləliklə, insan keçirdiyi pis hadisələri və ya daşıdığı pis xatirələrini zəiflətmiş olur . Ən azından teorik olaraq bu belə olmalıdır. Amma bu əsl səbəbdir?

Bu sahədə edilən araşdırmaların sayı çox çox olmadığı üçün, bu suala cavab verərkən diqqətli olmaq lazımdır. Çünki az sayda araşdırmanın göstərdiyinə görə, “unutmaq üçün içmək” davranışında gözlənilən nəticənin əldə edilməsi, içilən spirt miqdarıyla bağlıdır …

University College London-dan araşdırmaçıların 50 insan üzərində apardıqları araşdırmalarda, istifadə etdikləri spirt şkalasında 7 vahiddən çox içənlərin (hər hansı bir içkinin tipik bir vahidindən 4-5 stəkan və üzəri içənlərin) yaddaşlarında həqiqətən də bulanıqlaşma və pozulma tapıldı. Lakin bu sizi ümidləndirməsin! Biological Psychiatry jurnalında nəşr olunan araşdırma, “unutmaq üçün içmək” davranışının çox da işə yarayan olmadığını, çünki çox spirtli içki istehlak edən insanların, içlərində olduqları pis vəziyyətlərdə “ən pis ssenari” deyəcəyimiz şeylərə daha çox fokuslanırlar.

Bundan başqa, eyni şkalada 3-4 vahid civarında spirt istehlak edən (məsələn, gündə 1-2 stəkan şərab içən) insanlarda, təcavüz ya da ölümlü bir yol qəzası kimi travmatik hadisələrin daha şiddətli, dəqiq və acı verici bir şəkildə xatırlandığı görüldü. Eyni zamanda  gözlənildiyi kimi, spirt istehlakına aludə olan insanlarda travmatik hadisələr keçirmə ehtimalının artdığı və bunlar baş verdikdə , pis xatirələrin unudulmasının çətinləşdiyi də görüldü.

Austin’deki Texas Universiteti tərəfindən aparılan digər bir araşdırma da bu nəticələri dəstəkləyir. Normalda spirtli içki qəbul etmək “şüurlu yaddaş” olaraq bilinən səviyyədə pozuntulara səbəb olur. Bu səbəblə spirtli içki qəbul edən insanlar dostlarının adlarını, səhər maşını harda saxlandığını, müəyyən bir sözün mənasını xatırlamaqda çətinlik çəkir. Ancaq yaddaşımızın yeganə səviyyəsi “şüurlu” deyildir. “Şüursuz yaddaş” kimi tanınan aşağı səviyyəli yaddaş növü spirt qəbulundan müsbət təsirlənir.
Journal of Neuroscience’da nəşr olunan araşdırmada, öyrənmək prosesinin arxasındakı əsas faktor olan “sinaptik elastikliyin” (synaptic plasticity) spirtli içkilərin ana komponenti olan etalonun davamlı təkrar edən təsiri altında gücləndiyini ortaya qoyur. Spirt və ya narkotik istehlak edən insanlarda şüursuz yaddaş  təkcə bunları daha çox istehlak etməyə şərtləndirilmiş olmur, eyni zamanda şüursuz yaddaşın formalaşması gücləndiyi üçün istənməyən xatirələr və vərdişlər beyində daha güclü bir yer əldə etmiş olur. Araşdırmanın başındakı Hitoshi Morikawa belə söyləyir:

“Alkoqoliklər  spirtli içki içdikləri zaman əldə etdikləri zövqə və ya rahatlamağa asılı deyillər. Spirt sayəsində mühit, davranış, fizioloji qıcıqların təsiri altında ifraz olunan dopamin hormonuna qarşı asılıdırlar. Dopamin, çox vaxt xoşbəxtlik transmiteri olaraq tanınır. Ancaq bu heç də tam olaraq doğru deyil. Dopamin daha çox  öyrənmə transmiteridir . O anda aktiv olan sinapslar, dopamin varlığında güclənir. Bu da, spirtin mükafat olması kimi yanlış bir fikrin psixoloji olaraq yerləşməsinə səbəb olur. Yəni alkoqoliklər, alkoqolik olmağı öyrənmiş olurlar. ”

Morikawa’nın bu təsbiti, başqa bir gerçəyi də göz önünə sərir: bir şeyləri unutmaq üçün içərkən, içdiyiniz müddət ərzində o şeyləri xatırlamağa davam edirsiniz . Diqqətiniz o hadisədədir və içdikcə diqqətinizin yayınmasını gözləyirsiniz. Bu, qısa bir zaman aralığında bu işlə yaraya bilər, amma ümumilikdə baş verən şey isə dopaminin təsiri ilə o xatirələr şüursuz yaddaşda güclü bir şəkildə yerləşir. Yəni unutmaq üçün içdikcə, unutmamağı öyrənəcəksiniz.

Unudulmaması lazım olan kritik nöqtə odur ki, spirt heç bir problemin həlli deyil. Spirt istehlakı sizin problemlərinizdən heç birini həll edə bilməz. “Mən onsuz da həll etmək üçün yox , unutmaq üçün içirəm.” deyə bilərsiniz. Lakin təəssüf ki, bu göründüyü kimi , yanlış bir yanaşmadır. Əlbəttə ki, təkamülçü kimi bunu deyə bilmərəm və ya bunu edə bilmərik. Ancaq bizim üçün mövzunun arxasında olan mexanizmi bilmək vacibdir.

 

http://evrimagaci.org/photo/tr/kotu-olaylari-unutmak-icin-icki-icmek-sandiginizin-aksine-hatirlamaniza-yardimci-oluyor

 

 

Redaktə etdi: Şəfiqə Babayeva

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