Realizm incəsənət hərəkatı

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Realizm 1850-ci illərdə 1848-ci il inqilabından sonra Fransada başlayan incəsənət hərəkatıdır. Realistlər XVIII əsrin sonundan bəri Fransa ədəbiyyatı və incəsənətində dominant olan romantizmi rədd edirdilər. Realizm ekzotik mövzuya və romantik hərəkatın şişirdilmiş duyğu və dramına qarşı üsyan etdi. Bunun əvəzinə, gerçək və tipik müasir insanları və vəziyyətləri həqiqi və doğru bir şəkildə təsvir etməyə və həyatın xoşagəlməz və kədərli aspektlərindən uzaqlaşmamağa çalışdı. Realist əsərlər adi həyatdan yaranan situasiyatlarda bütün siniflərdən olan insanları təsvir edir və tez-tez SənayeKommersiya inqilablarının gətirdikləri dəyişiklikləri əks etdirirdi. Belə “real” əsərlərin populyarlaşması fotoqrafiyanın – insanlara obyektiv olaraq real görünən təsvirlər yaratma arzusu yaradan yeni bir vizual mənbənin yaranması ilə daha da artdı.

Realistlər müasir olan gündəlik mövzular və situasiyaları təsvir edir və bütün sosial siniflərin üzvlərini oxşar şəkildə təsvir etməyə çalışırdılar. Klassik idealizm və romantik emosionalizm və dram bərabər şəkildə aradan qaldırıldı və tez-tez subyektlərin sadə və nizamsız elementləri yumşalmadı və üstündən keçilmədi. Sosial realizm, işçi sinifinin təsvirini vurğulayır və sənətdəki digər siniflər kimi eyni ciddiliklə davranır, lakin gerçəklik (sünilikdən qaçmaq kimi) insan münasibətləri və emosiyalarını təsvir etməkdə realizmin bir məqsədidir. Subyektlərin qəhrəmancasına və ya sentimental şəkildə təsviri eyni dərəcədə rədd edildi.

 

Fransadakı başlanğıc

Realist hərəkat XIX əsrin ortalarından romantizm və tarix rəngkarlığına reaksiya olaraq başladı. “Real” həyatın təsvirlərinə üstünlük verən realist rəssamlar əsərlərinin subyekti kimi adi mühitdə real fəaliyyətlə məşğul olan işçiləri və adi insanları təsvir edirdilər. Realizmin aparıcı nümayəndələri. Qustav Kurbe (Gustave Courbet), Jan Fransua Mille (Jean-François Millet), Onore Damer (Honoré Daumier) və Jan Batist Kamille Korot (Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot) idi. Yules Basten-Lepaj (Jules Bastien-Lepage) realizm hərəkatının sonrakı mərhələlərindən meydana çıxan və impressionizmin meydana gəlişini müjdələyən bir sənət tərzi kimi naturalizmin başlanğıcı ilə yaxından assosiasiya olunur. Realistlər Emil Zola (Émile Zola), Onore de Balzak (Honoré de Balzac) və Qustav Flaubertin (Gustave Flaubert) naturalist ədəbiyyatı ilə ziddiyyətli olan, adi müasir həyatın varlığını əks etdirən və gözəlləşdirilməyən detallarını istifadə edirdilər. Kurbe realizmin aparıcı tərəfdarı idi və dövlət tərəfindən dəstəklənən incəsənət akademiyasında bəyənilən məşhur tarixi rəngkarlığa etiraz edirdi. Onun inqilabi (groundbreaking/ новаторский/ çığır açan) rəsmləri olan Ornansda dəfn və Daşqıranlar onun doğma rayonundan adi insanları təsvir edir. Rəsmlər tarixi rəngkarlıq üçün səciyyəvi olan böyük parçalarda yaradılıb.

“Ornansda dəfn” – Qustav Kurbe

 

Daş qıranlar” – Qustav Kurbe

 

“Toxumsəpən” – Jan-Fransua Mille

 

“Üçüncü sinif vaqon” – Onore Damer

 

“Gənc qız oxuyur” – Jan-Batist-Kamille Korot

 

“Oktyabr” – Yules Basten-Lepaj

 

“İş gününün sonu” – Yules Breton

 

Fransadan kənarda realizm

Fransız realizm hərəkatı bütün digər Qərb ölkələrində üslub və ideoloji ekvivalentlərinə malik idi. Xüsusilə Rusiyada 1860-cı illərdə yaradılan və 1871-ci ildən sərgilər təşkil edən, məişət janrında Vasili Perov (Василий Перов) mənzərə janrında İvan Şişkin (Иван Шишкин), Aleksey Savrasov (Алексей Саврасовvə Arxip Kuinci (Архип Куинджи) yüksək qiymətləndirilən portret rəssamı İvan Kramskoy (Иван Крамской) müharibə rəssamı  Vasili Vereşagin (Василий Верещагин) tarixi rəssam Vasili Surikov (Василий Суриков) və bir çoxları tərəfindən XIX əsrin ən məşhur rus rəssamı hesab edilən İlya Repin (Илья Репин) kimi çox sayda realistlərin özündə birləşdirən Peredvijniki  (az: Səhayətçilər; rus: Передвижники) qrupunu nümunə göstərmək olar. İlya Repinin “Volqa yedəkçiləri” əsəri Rusiyada realizm janrında ilk rəsm əsərlərindən biridir.

“Ovçular istirahətdə” – Vasili Perov

 

“Çovdar tarlası” – İvan Şişkin

 

“Volqa yedəkçiləri” – İlya Repin

 

Britaniyada real dünyanın, sosial məsələlərin təsvirində amerikalı Ceyms Abbot Vistler (James Abbot McNeill Whistler), ingilis Hubert von Herkome (Hubert von Herkomer) və Luk Fildes (Luke Fildes) böyük nailiyyətlər əldə etmişlər.

“Çətin vaxtlar” – Hubert von Herkomer

 

Əsasən, Nyu-York şəhərində yerləşən bir sənət hərəkatı olan Ashcan məktəbinə Corc Belous (George Bellows)  (Robert Henri) kimi sənətkarlar daxil idi. Bu hərəkat cəmiyyətin yoxsul üzvlərinin gündəlik həyatını təsvir etmək tendensiyası olan Amerikan realizminin ayrılmasına imkan verdi.

 

“Nyu-Yorkda qar” – Robert Henri

Mənbə:
https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/rlsm/hd_rlsm.htm
http://impressionist1877.tripod.com/realism.htm
http://www.theartstory.org/movement-realism.htm
http://www.theartstory.org/movement-realism-artworks.htm

 

 

Redaktə etdi: Fatimə Əliyeva

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