Üç dişli yabanın sahibi Poseydon

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Yunan tanrıları arasında dənizin simvolu olan Poseydon (Poseidon) Zevsin (Zeus) qardaşıdır. Roma mifologiyasında adı Neptundur (Neptune).

Anası Reya (Rhea), atası Krondur (Krónos). Kron Zevsdən başqa bütün uşaqlarını udaraq yemiş, Poseydon da onlardan biri olmuşdur.

Reya oğlu Zevsi atasının əlindən qurtarmış, Zevs isə geri qayıdaraq atası ilə savaşmış və qardaşlarını Kronun içindən çıxarmışdır.

Poseydon çox güclü idi. Zevsdən sonra önəmli tanrı hesab olunurdu. Əlində olan atribut halını almış üç dişli yaba ilə dənizləri idarə edir və torpaqlara belə hökm edirdi. Bu üç dişli nizəni yerə vuranda adaları dənizdə boğar, bəzi adaları isə üzə çıxarar və zəlzələlər yaradardı.

   

Gücünü həmişə hiss edən Poseydon Zevslə hər zaman mübahisə edir, onun ziddinə gedirdi. Ümumiyyətlə, dastanlara baxsaq, Poseydonun Zevsin verdiyi əmrlərdən heç də razı olmadığı məlumdur. Bu narazılıq nəticəsində, Poseydon digər tanrılarla birləşərək qardaşı Zevsi zəncirləmişdi.

Balıqçılıq və dənizçiliyin mühüm rol oynadığı bu cəmiyyətin əsas məskunlaşma sahəsi dəniz kənarı və adalar idi. Bu da Poseydona duyulan qorxu və itaətin ən başlıca səbəblərindən biri idi. Bildiyimiz kimi, tanrılara dua etdikcə onlar daha da güclənirlər. Yunan əhalisi də yaşadıqları ərazi ilə bağlı olaraq Poseydona bol-bol dualar etmiş və onu qüvvətləndirmişlər.

Hesiod (Hēsíodos) Poseydonu “torpaqların əfəndisi” və ya “yeri titrədən” adlandırmışdı.

Yer üzünü dəyişdirən və ona quruluş verənin də Poseydon olduğu güman edilirdi. Buna görə də, vulkanların yaxınlığında yaşayan əhali də Poseydona xüsusi diqqət göstərir və ona dua edirdilər. Eyni zamanda, onun bütün dəniz canavarlarına hökm etməsi də qorxunc bir xüsusiyətidir. Bütün bunları başa düşən Poseydon Zevs ilə heç bir fərqinin olmadığını, onun sadəcə göyləri, özünün isə dənizləri idarə etdiyini düşünür və daima bərabər olduqlarına eyham edərdi.

 

Poseydonun bir digər özəlliyi isə atı yaradıb, onu əhliləşdirməsidir.

Sual verə bilərsiniz ki, dəniz tanrısının at ilə əlaqəsi nədir?

Dənizdə yaranan dalğaların bəzən at olaraq təsvir edilməsi bununla əlaqələndirilir.

Lakin Poseydonun atlarla əlaqəsinin digər bir mifi də məlumdur. Əfsanə belədir ki, Poseydon Demetraya (Demeter) aşiq olmuşdu. Hətta Demetra ilə bərabər olmaq üçün onu izləməyə başlamışdı. Bundan narahat olan Demetra isə çarəni ata çevrilərək at sürüsünün içinə qarışmaqda görür. Lakin bu da Demetra üçün yaxşı nəticələnmir, Poseydon da ata çevrilir və sürü içində Demetra ilə cütləşir və bunun nəticəsində, sıradan olmayan, Peqasusdan (Pegasos) belə sürətli olan Arion (Areion) adlı bir at doğulur.

Delfin də bu tanrını simvolizə edir, səbəbi isə başqa bir qadındır.

Poseydon Doris (Doris) və Nereyin (Nereus) əlli qızından biri olan Amfitritə (Amphitrite) aşiq olur.

Bəli, onu da izləmişdi. Lakin Amfitrit çox utancaq idi və buna görə də, Poseydondan çox-çox uzaqlara, Atlasın (Atlas) dünyanı çiyinlərində daşıdığı yerə getmişdi. Poseydon isə sevdiyi qadının ardından bir delfin göndərir. Delfin gedib Amfitriti tapmış və onu boynuna alaraq Poseydona geri gətirmişdi.

Nəhayət, qovuşan bu cütlük evlənmiş, dəniz ilahəsi sayılan Amfitrit və Poseydon dənizin dibində görkəmli bir sarayda yaşamışlar.

Bu saray Egey dənizinin dərinliklərində qayalıq bir ada olan İmroz adası ilə Tenedos arasında qalan böyük bir mağaradır.

Poseydonun uşaqları və münasibətləri bununla məhdudlaşmamış, hətta qadın mövzusunda qardaşı Zevs ilə rəqabət apardığını da deyə bilərik. Məsələn, “Təbiət Ana” olaraq bilinən Geya (Gaia) ilə münasibətindən Antey (Antaios) adlı bir div doğulmuşdur. Bu qorxunc div yolçuların önlərini kəsərək onlarla savaşırmış.

Savaşdığı hər kəsi məğlub edən Antey öldürdüyü yolçuların kəllələrini yığaraq Poseydon məbədinin damını bu kəllə sümükləri ilə örtürmüş. Bu qorxunc divi məğlub edə bilən şəxs yalnız Herakl (Heracles) olmuşdur.

Bundan əlavə, Poseydonun Toosa (Thoosa) ilə münasibətindən Təpəgöz kimi tanınan Polifemos (Polyphemos) doğulmuşdur.

Zevs və Poseydon yalnız qadınlara olan maraqları ilə və ya gücləri ilə bənzəmirdilər. Təsvirlərində də ciddi bənzərliklər nəzərə çarpır. Poseydon çox vaxt sərt üz ifadəsi ilə üç dişli yabasına söykənən şəkildə, dimdik dayanaraq təsvir edilir, bəzən isə bir delfin və ya qaya parçası üzərində qarşımıza çıxır.

    

Poseydon məbədi Attika yarımadasında, Sounion şəhərindədir. Məbədin üç tərəfi dənizlə əhatə olunub, möhtəşəm bir mənzərəsi var. Buranı inşa edən və dənizlərdə yaşadığına inanılan Poseydon üçün, həqiqətən də, möhtəşəm bir məbəddir. İnsanların nə hiss etdiklərini anlamaq çətin deyil, bu gözəl tikilinin memarının məbəd tikintisində məşhur olan İktinos (Ictinus) olduğu düşünülür.

Poseydonun ən məşhur miflərindən biri isə onun ilahə Afina (Athena) ilə girdiyi yarışdır.

    

İlahə Afinaya qarşı yarışan Poseydon bu yarışda məğlub olmuşdu. Afina şəhəri üçün ən yararlı şeyi edə bilən qalib hesab ediləcəkdi. Poseydon üç dişli yabasını yerə vuraraq bir duz gölü yaratdı, ilahə Afina isə torpaqda zeytun ağacı bitirdi və yarışı qazandı.

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