Günümüzdə yaşayan 20 ən nüfuzlu elm insanı

89

Elm insanları dünya üzərindəki ən təsirli insanlardır. Tibb və texnologiyada sürətli bir irəliləmə təşkil edilməsinə kömək olan elm insanları, eyni zamanda, dünyanın nə olduğunu və hansı bir sistemlə işlədiyini insanların dərk etməsinə köməkçi olurlar. Elm insanlarının mədəniyyətimizin dünyagörüşünü formalaşdırmaqda rolu misilsizdir. Dünyanı ən çox təsirləndirdiyi düşünülən və hələ də yaşayan 20 elm insanı bu şəkildə sıralanır:

 


1. Timoti Con “Tim” Beners-Li (Timothy John “Tim” Berners-Lee) internetin bağlı olduğu köçürmə protokollarını uğurla həyata keçirən Ümumdünya İnternet Şəbəkəsini icad etdi.

 


2. Bir dilçi və filosof olmasına baxmayaraq, psixologiya sahəsini əsasda yenidən formalaşdıran Noam Komski (Noam Chomsky) ən azından davranış şüurunu dinin yaranması ilə bağlı fikirlər yolu ilə dəyişdirərək yenidən formalaşdırmışdır.

 

3. Kainatçı biologiyadan istifadə edən Riçard Dokinz (Richard Dawkins) özümüzü ən təməl səviyyələrdə anlamaq şəklimizi formalaşdırdı.

 

4. Qrupların riyaziyyat nəzəriyyəsini statistika ilə birləşdirən Persi Dikonis (Persi Diaconis) təsadüf haqqındakı anlayışlarımızı radikal bir formada yenidən əsaslandırdı.

 


5. Primatlarla əlaqəli çalışmaları olan Ceyn Gudal (Jane Goodall) heyvanlar krallığında ən yaxın qohumlarımızı anlamağımıza rəhbərlik etdi.

 


6. Alan Qut (Alan Guth) enflamasiya kosmik fikri olan Big Bang haqqındakı təsəvvürümüzü və kainatın geniş əhatəli formasını dəyişdirdi.

 


7. Stefen Havkins (Stephen Hawkins) kosmosun və zamanın təbiəti ilə bağlı çalışması ilə yeni bir yol yaradan və neyro-muskular distrofiyadan əziyyət çəkməsinə baxmayaraq, şəxsi zəfər hekayəsi milyonlarla insana ilham mənbəyi olan bir alimdir.

 


8. Donald Knut (Donald Knuth) Alqoritm nəzəriyyəsi üzərindəki tədqiqatları kompüter elmləri sahəsini dəyişdirdi. (Vill Robertsonun (Will Robertson) icazəsi ilə)

 


9. Lin Marqulis (Lynn Margulis) simbiogenezis ilə bağlı düşüncələri bioloji kainatın dərk olunmasına yönəlmiş ənənəvi üsullarla zənginləşdirmişdir.

 


10. İntelin  yaradıcısı olan Qordon Mor (Gordon Moore) məlumat texnologiyası inqilabını (“Morun qanunu” adını daşıyır) edə bilmək üçün iş dünyasını elmlə birləşdirdi.

 


11. Roqer Penroz (Roger Penrose) təkcə əsas fizikada deyil, insan şüuru ilə olan əlaqələrlə də yeni bir zəmin yaratmışdır.

 


12. Alan Sandaq (Allan Sandage) əfsanəvi Edvin Habblın (Edwin Hubble) tədqiqatlarını dünyanın ən böyük canlı müşahidəçi astronomu olmaq üçün davam etdirdi.

 


13. Tədqiqatları ilə əvvəlcə proteinləri meydana çıxaran Frederick Sanger kimya sahəsində iki dəfə Nobel mükafatı qazandı.

 

14. Çarls Tones (Charles Townes) indi texnologiya və günlük həyatda hər yerdə rast gəlinən lazeri kəşf etmişdir.

 

15.  İnsan Geni layihəsinin tamamlanması və sintetik genlər ilə süni olaraq yaradılmış  hüceyrələr üzərində tədqiqatlarına davam edən Kreyq Venter (Craig Venter) həyat anlayışımıza meydan oxuyur.

 

16. DNT əsasının Fransis Krik (Francis Crick) ilə birlikdə kəşf edilməsi ilə birlikdə, həm də biologiya əsasında inqilab yaradan və XX əsrin dönüş nöqtəsi olan Ceyms Vatson (James Watson).

 


17. Fizika qüvvələrini birləşdirmək sahəsindəki tədqiqatları və son dərəcə yaxşı yazılmış elm haqqındakı məşhur kitabları olan Steven Veynberq (Steven Weinberg). O, elmi daha geniş bir mədəniyyətə yayan önəmli bir ictimai intellektualdır.

 


18. Andre Viles (Andrew Wiles) 300 illik Fermat Riyaziyyat Təxmini nəticələrindən qərarlı şəkildə həll edilə bilməyən problemlərin yaradıcı daxili fikirlərlə həll edilə biləcəyini göstərdi.

 

19. Sosial biologiya üzərindəki tədqiqatları, kainatçı düşüncəni etikaya və psixologiyaya qədər gətirən Edvard O. Vilson (Edward O. Wilson).

 


20. Sim nəzəriyyəsinin (String theory) riyazi əsasları üzərində çalışmalar aparan Edvard Vitten (Edward Witten).

 

Mənbə:

20 Most Influential Scientists Alive Today

Tərcüməçi: Bənövşə Soltanova

Redaktə etdi: Fatimə Əliyeva

 

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