Kosmik yaşam: NASA əkizlər araşdırmasının nəticəsini açıqladı

75

NASA 2015-ci ildə kosmosda uzun bir müddət qalmağın insan bədəninə etdiyi təsirləri araşdırmaq üçün Beynəlxalq Kosmos Platformasında gerçəkləşdiriləcək bir illik tapşırıq təşkil etdi. Bu missiyada yer almaq üçün iki kosmonavt  könüllü oldu: ekiz qardaşlar Mark Kelly (Mark Kelly)
və Scott Kelly (Scott Kelly). NASA bu çalışmaya Twins Study  (ekizlər çalışması) adını vermişdi.

Beləliklə NASA-nın “Year in Space” (Kosmosda bir il) adlı missiyasında kosmonavt Skot Kelli və Mark Kelli qardaşları da “ekizlər çalışması” üçün tapşırıq almış oldu. Kosmonavt Skot Kelli Beynəlxalq Kosmos Platformasında bir il müddətə qalma qərarından sonra 2015-ci ilin martında  Dünyadan  ayrılanda bu missiya hər kəsi heyran qoymuşdu, lakin Yerdə qalan kosmonavt ekiz qardaşı Mark Kelli ilə bir araşdırmaya daxil edilmələri də kifayət qədər maraqlı oyandırmışdı.

Skot Kelli Beynəlxalq Kosmos Platformasında keçirdiyi bir il boyunca çəkdiyi şəkilləri instagram hesabında da paylaşıb.

Skot bir ilin tamamlanmasından sonra 2016-cı il martın 2-də Yerə enmişdir.

Bu iki ekizin demək olar ki, eyni genomları və bənzər həyat şəraiti olduğuna görə NASA uzun müddətli Kosmos uçuşlarının nəticələri olan bioloji dəyişiklikləri yoxlamaq və izləmək üçün qardaşlardan qan nümunəsi və digər bioloji nümunələri almışdı. Skot Kellidən tapşırıq öncəsində, proses zamanı və sonda alınan nümunələr  və edilən analizlər gendə,  DNT metilləşməsində(DNT zəncirinə CH3 metil qrupunun birləşməsi) və bioloji periodda(maddələr mübadiləsi və s) yaşanan dəyişiklikləri ortaya qoydu. Skot  Yerə endikdən sonra araşdırmalar sürətləndi və nəticələr alınmağa başlandı.

Nyu-York Uill Kornel (New York Weill Cornell) Xəstəxanasında genetik  Cristopher Mason ekizlərin xromosom uzunluğundan bağırsaq bakteriyalarına qədər yaşanan dəyişikliklərin asanlıqla göründüyünü dedi. Mason və bu proyektdə  çalışan digər alimlər yanvarın 26-sı Galveston, Teksasda gerçəkləşən konfransda ilkin nəticələri təqdim etdi və müzakirə edildi. Mason eyni zamanda məlumatların çox yeni olduğunu, hətta bəzilərinin mexanizmlərdən çıxmaqda olduğunu dedi.

Gendəki fərqliliklər

Burada söhbət genlərdən gələn məlumatın transkripsiyası(üzünün köçürülməsi), nəql edilməsi və hüceyrə funksiyalarını yoxlamaq üzrə göstərdiyi təsirdən gedir. İnsulin istehsal etmək kimi. Ancaq gen ifadəsi – surətlərinin sayı və ya ikiləşmə sürəti- ətraf mühit faktorlarına görə dəyişə bilər. Məsələn, insanlar dieta saxladığında və ya yuxu tsikli dəyişəndə genetik kodda  sürüşmələr (yer dəyişikliyi) baş verə bilər.

Məlumatlar Kelli qardaşların gen ifadələrində aydın görünən fərqliliklər olduğunu göstərdi. Genetik kod Yerdə də dəyişə bilən bir şeydir, lakin Skotun genləri normaldan daha çox genetik dəyişikliyi göstərdi. Əslində gözlənilən də bu idi, çünki Dünyadakı həyat tərzindən Kosmosdakı həyat tərzinə keçmək ən böyük ətraf mühit dəyişikliyi deməkdir.

Kristofr Mason (Cristopher Mason) və komandası ekizlər arasındakı genetik kod izlərinin fərqinə diqqət çəkdi. Bu cür dəyişikliklər dieta və yuxu tsiklindəki dəyişikliklər kimi ətraf mühit faktorlarına bağlıdır və Yerdə də tez-tez reallaşır. Amma və lakin Skot Kellinin gen ifadəsindəki dəyişikliyin bu tempdə artmasının səbəbi daimi dondurulmuş və qurudulmuş yeməklərlə qidalanmağa başlaması, cazibə qüvvəsi olmayan mühitdə günlük fəaliyyətlərin axsamasının stressə səbəb olmağı və yuxusuzluq problemi ola bilər.
Skotun gen ifadəsi Kosmik Platformadan döndükdən qısa müddət sonra uçuşdan əvvəlki vəziyyətinə dönməyə başladı.

DNT Metilləşməsi azaldı

DNT Metilləşməsi DNT-dəki bir kimyəvi dəyişiklikdir və bu sürətli bir maşının arxasına qanad taxmağa bənzəyir. Maşın yenə də maşındır, lakin fərqli işləyir. DNT-dəki bu “qanad” isə hidrogen və genetik kodu dəyişdirə bilir. Yüksək səviyyədə metilləşmə  sinir formalaşması, qocalmanı və karsinogenez (bir hüceyrənin xərçəng hüceyrəsinə çevrilməsi) kimi bədəndəki proseslərə təsir edə bilər.

DNT metilləşməsi uçuş zamanı Skotda azalma, eyni periodda Markda artım göstərdi. Skot Yerə endikdən sonra isə metilləşmənin göstəriciləri yenidən bir-birinə yaxınlaşdı.

Xromosomlar uzandı

Ekizlərin telomerləri (xromosomların ucundakı başlıqlar) üzərində aparılan incələmələr, kosmosa uçuş zamanı Skotun telomerlərinin, qardaşınınkına nisbətən uzanmış olduğunu göstərdi. Xromosomlar uzanmışdı.

Fort Kollinsdəki (Fort Collins) Kolorado Dövlət Universitetinin radioloqu Suzan (Susan Bailey) “gözlədiyimiz  nəticənin tam tərsi gəldi” dedi. Nümunələri incələyən ikinci laboratoriya da bu artımı təsdiqlədi.

Bu vəziyyət hesab edildiyindən daha təhlükəli ola bilər, çünki Skot Kelli cəmi kosmosda 340 gün keçirmişdi, lakin Marsın səthinə eniş ən az 9 aylıq zaman tələb edir və gediş-gəliş müddəti kosmosda ən az 500 gün olur.

Redaktə və əlavələr: Ziya Mehdiyev
Tərcümə: Fəridbəy Fərid Həsənli

Mənbələr:
1. NASA, Twins Study – About, <https://www.nasa.gov/twins-study/about>
2. Nature, Astronaut twin study hints at stress of space travel, <http://www.nature.com/news/astronaut-twin-study-hints-at-stress-of-space-travel-1.21380>
3. PBS, NASA releases first results from ‘Year In Space’ twin study, <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/nasa-year-in-space-twin-study/>
4. Gizmodo, Scott Kelly Gained Two Inches During His Year in Space, <http://gizmodo.com/scott-kelly-gained-two-inches-during-his-year-in-space-1762624944>

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