Ay necə ortaya çıxdı? (“Böyük toqquşma” fikri)

99

 

Ayın necə ortaya çıxması ilə bağlı bir çox fərziyyələr irəli sürülmüşdür.

XIX əsrdə Çarlz Darvinin oğlu Georgi Darvin  Yer yaranarkən, onu (Yeri) yaradan parçaların sürətli dönməsi ilə qopub Ayı yaratdığını, hətta Sakit Okeanın bu qopmanın Yerdəki izi olduğunu bildirmişdi, amma 1969-cu ildə  Aya gedən astronavtlar tərəfindən gətirilən nümunələr Ay daşlarının Sakit okean tavasından daha qədim olduğunu göstərdi ki, bununla da Georgi Darvinin qopma fərziyyəsinin səhv olduğu aydın oldu.

Kimyaçı Harold Urey Ayın başqa bir yerdən gəldiyini və Yerin cazibə (qravitasiya) qüvvəsinin təsirinə düşərək, orbitdə qaldığını söylədi. Ancaq bu fərziyyənin də yanlış olduğu məlum oldu, çünki Ay daşlarının kimyəvi tərkibi Yerə bənzəyirdi.

Son Apollo enişindən 3 il sonra –  1975-ci ildə daha bir fərziyyə ortaya atıldı.  “Böyük toqquşma” adlı bu fərziyyəyə görə, 4.5 milyard il əvvəl Günəş sistemi formalaşarkən fəzada uçuşan Teya adlı cism Yerlə toqquşub. Toqquşma səbəbindən Yerdən ayrılan parçalar dünyanın peykini – Ayı ortaya çıxarıb. Amma Teya Yerə müəyyən bucaq altında çırpılmışdır. Əgər Teya ilə Yer baş-başa toqquşsaydı, Yer orbitindən çıxardı. Nəticədə, nə Yer, nə də Ay formalaşa bilməzdi. Teyanın Yerin onda biri (10%-i) böyüklüyündə (təxminən Mars kütləsində) olduğu düşünülür, amma bunun izləri görünmədiyinə görə bəzi Harvard alimləri 2012-ci ildə Teyanın Yerin 100-də 2-si (2%-i) boyda olduğunu irəli sürdülər. Yəni Teya kiçik olduğu üçün Yerin içində itmiş, bu səbəblə, iz buraxmamışdı. Alimlər bununla da “Əgər bu çırpılma olubsa, niyə iz yoxdur?” sualına cavab verirlər. Amma unutmaq olmaz ki, bu fikir hesablama olaraq mümkün olsa da, yalnız Teyanın izləri tapıldıqda tam təsdiqini tapacaq. Hələ ki, elmi dairələrdə Böyük toqquşma ən çox üstün tutulan  fərziyyədir.

2015-ci ildə Böyük toqquşma fərziyyəsini gücləndirən başqa məlumatlar ortaya çıxdı. Günəş sisteminin formalaşma mərhələsində planetlərə çırpılan cisimlərin quruluş olaraq, bir-birinə bənzər olma ehtimalının sanıldığı kimi 1% yox, 20% olduğu bilindi ki, bu da Teyanın Yerdə fərq edilmə ehtimalının azalması demək idi.

Qısaca desək, Böyük toqquşmaya görə, Ay 4.5 milyard il əvvəl Teya adlı kosmik cismin Yerlə toqquşması zamanı ayrılan parçaların öz aralarındakı qravitasiya (cazibə) qüvvəsi ilə bir araya gəlməsi ilə yaranmış, daha sonra Yerin qravitasiya gücünün təsirə düşməsi  ilə peykə çevrilmişdir.

Müəllif: Sübhan Qulu

Mənbə: https://www.space.com/19275-moon-formation.html

Redaktə etdi: Şəfiqə Babayeva

99 ŞƏRH

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