Zəhərləyici maddələrin mənbələri və zəhərin xüsusiyyətləri

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Hal-hazırkı dövrdə çirklənmə dedikdə, mühitə onun üçün xarakterik olmayan, insana və flora və faunaya mənfi təsir göstərən, fiziki, kimyəvi və bioloji agentlərin daxil olma və ya yaranma prosesləri başa düşülür. Çirklənmə – çirkləndirici maddələrin qatılıq səviyyəsi və ya ətraf mühitə fiziki təsirin hər hansı səviyyəsidir. Çirklənmənin əsas növlərinə aiddir: fiziki (günəş radiasiyası, elektromaqnit şüalanma, səs, titrəyiş və s.), kimyəvi (üzvi birləşmələr, ağır metallar, neft məhsulları və s.), bioloji (mikrobioloji sənayenin tullantıları, bakterial çirklənmə və s.). Ekosistemin əsas çirklənmə yolları çirkləndirici maddələrin hava tullantıları və onların su hövzələrinə tullantı suyu ilə axıdılmasıdır. Hava kütləsi və su ilə bu maddələr çox geniş ərazilərdə yayılır. Havadan onlar torpağın, bitkilərin üst səthinə çökür, sonra isə otlaq sahələri (torpaq-bitki-fitofaq-yırtıcı və s.) və detrit (ölmüş bitki maddəsi-saprofaq-yırtıcı) trofik zəncirinə keçir ki, burada onların paylanması, toplanması və çevrilməsi baş verir.

Çirklənmənin əsas növlərinə aiddir:

  1. Fiziki (günəş radiasiyası, elektromaqnit şüalanma, səs, titrəyişlər və s.)
  2. Kimyəvi (üzvi birləşmələr, ağır metallar, neft məhsulları və s.)
  3. Bioloji (mikrobioloji sənayenin tullantıları, bakterial çirklənmə və s.)

Atmosferə atılan sənaye tullantıları içərisində maye və qazşəkilli maddələr (82,4 %), qismən azot oksidləri (34,0%), karbon (23,2%), azot (9,5%), ammonyak, sulfat turşusu, karbohidrogenlər, benzin, his üstünlük təşkil edir. Sənayedən atılan tullantı sularında ən çox suda həll olan duzlar, o cümlədən ağır metalların, xloridlərin, sulfatların duzları olur. Nəqliyyat vasitələrinin tullantıları tərkibinə görə sənaye tullantıları ilə eynidir. Avtonəqliyyatın işlənmiş qazlarında 200-ə yaxın maddə aşkarlanmışdır ki, onların arasında karbon oksidi, mənzil-kommunal təsərrüfatında – suda həll olan duzlar, his, kənd təsərrüfatında – mineral duzlar, sulfatlar, xloridlər üstünlük təşkil edir.

Avtonəqliyyatla son illər atmosferə atılan karbohidrogenlərin miqdarı sürətlə artaraq 63% olmuşdur. Günəş işığının ultrabənövşəyi şüaları iştirakında işlənmiş qazların azot oksidləri və karbohidrogenlər, qismən peroksiasetilnitrat və ozon öz aralarında reaksiyaya girərək fotokimyəvi maye deyilən çox zəhərli maddə əmələ gətirir. Hər iki maddə insanda gözyaşarması və tənəffüs çətinliyi yaradır, onlar həmçinin bitkilər üçün də çox zəhərlidir. Belə ki, ozon yarpaqların tənəffüsünü gücləndirir, bu proses zamanı bitkilərin ehtiyat qidalı maddələri sərf olunur və bitki məhv olur. Peroksiasetilnitrat fotosintezdə Xill reaksiyasını bloklayır, bu da bitkilərdə qidalı maddələrin əmələ gəlməsini azaldır və bitkilərin məhvinə səbəb olur.

Antropogen üzvi çirkləndiricilərin ikinci mənbəyi gücünə görə sənaye istehsalıdır. Üzvi sintezin əsas baza məhsulu etilendir. Bütün üzvi maddələrin yarısı onun əsasında yaranır. Etilenin bəzi hüceyrə strukturlarına təsiri nəticəsində mübadilə proseslərinin intensivliyi azalır, bitkilərin boyatması zəifləyir, yarpaqlar tökülür, bitkilər inkişafdan dayanır.

Sənayenin inkişaf etdiyi ölkələrdə istifadə olunan həlledicilərin itkisi ümumi karbohidrogenlərin 20-25% təşkil edir. Onların arasında uçucu halogenli karbohidrogenlər üstünlük təşkil edir. Reaksiya qabiliyyətli üzvi birləşmələrin oksidləşməsi ozonun – güclü fitotoksikant və mutageninin yaranmasına səbəb olur. Onun qatılığı texnogen azot oksidləri ilə sərhədsiz fitogen karbohidrogenlərin qarşılıqlı təsiri hesabına artır.

Yerin ekosisteminin toksikasiyası çoxlu üzvi və qeyri-üzvi maddələrlə baş verir. Qazşəkilli qeyri-üzvi birləşmələrdən, ağır metallar və radionuklidlərdən başqa onlara çoxlu sintetik tərkibli üzvi maddələri də əlavə etmək lazımdır. Canlı orqanizmlərə, əsasən də insan orqanizminə daxil olan, yüksək toksiki göstəricilərə malik olan əsas toksiki maddələrə aiddir:

  • Qazşəkilli qeyri-üzvi birləşmələr və turşular;
  • Ağır metallar (civə, qurğuşun, kadmium, arsen, qalay, sink, mis və s.)
  • Radionuklidlər;
  • Politsiklik aromatik və xlorsaxlayan karbohidrogenlər;
  • Dioksinlər;
  • Pestisidlər və onların metabolitləri, defoliantlar, desikantlar;
  • Boyatmanı tənzimləyicilər;
  • Nitritlər, nitratlar və nitroazobirləşmələr
  • Antibiotiklər, sulfanilamidlər, nitrofuranlar, hormonal preparatlar;
  • Mikotoksinlər və s.

XX əsrin ikinci yarısında ətraf mühitin bioloji çirklənməsi böyük aktuallıq qazandı. Bioloji çirklənmə insan üçün arzuolunmaz, həmçinin ekosistemə yad olan orqanizmlərin insanın ekologiyasına daxil olmasıdır. Bioloji çirklənmə ətraf mühitə antropogen çirklənmənin nəticəsidir. Bioloji çirklənmənin növlərindən biri – mikrobioloji sintezlə məşğul olan müəssisələrin tullantılarıdır. XX əsrin 70-80-ci illərində Rusiyada səkkiz iri, yüzə yaxın xırda müəssisələr yaradılmışdı ki, bunlar neft karbohidrogenlərindən (parafin, metanol) kultivasiya edilən yem mayalarından (Candida tropicalis və s.) süni zülalların istehsalı ilə məşğul idi. Müəssisələr il ərzində 1,5 mln t zülal-vitamin konsentratı (ZVK) istehsal edirdi. Nəticədə zavodların ətrafında ZVK və onların məhsulları ilə güclü çirklənmə baş verdi ki, bu da əhalinin kütləvi surətdə bronxial astma xəstəliyinə tutulması, immunitetin aşağı düşməsi ilə nəticələndi. Bioloji çirklənmənin təhlükəliliyi bir sıra ölkələrin bioloji silah istehsal etmə ehtimalı ilə bağlıdır. Bu silahları tam məxfi şəraitdə, kiçik laboratoriyalarda da almaq olur.

Bioloji çirklənmənin yeni növünə ətraf mühitin genetik çirklənməsi də aiddir ki, bu da gen mühəndisliyinin inkişafı və onun kənd təsərrüfatında geniş istifadəsi ilə bağlıdır.

Mənbə: Ekotoksikoloji . H.Parlak , Ö.Ç.Arslan

Redaktə etdi: Şəfiqə Babayeva

80 ŞƏRH

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