Hieronymus Bosch həyatı və əsərləri

82

Hironimus Bos (alm. Hieronymus Bosch) Flaman rəssam, qeyri-adi yaratma və analiz gücündən qaynaqlanan orijinal sənətçi şəxsiyyəti ilə Orta Əsrlərin son qərbli rəssamları arasında ən maraqla qarşılananıdır.
Həyatı ilə bağlı çox məlumat yoxdur, məlum olan tarixlər də dəqiq deyildir. Hollandiyanın Brabant bölgəsindəki “Hertogenbosch” qəsəbəsinin qeydiyyatlarında adı keçdiyi üçün, orada doğduğu düşünülür. Ailəsində  bir çox rəssam var idi:3 əmisi və bir qardaşı. Əsərləri ilə daha sağlığında ikən məşhurlaşmış, öldükdən sonra isə “insignis pictor” (görkəmli rəssam) olaraq xatırlanmışdır.
Bir üslub yaradıcı olaraq, Bos XV əsrdə bənzərsiz bir rəssam olaraq yer alır. Mücərrəd rəsmin qabaqcılı sayılır. Gizli təriqətlərlə əlaqəsi olduğu da önə sürülmüşdür. Rəsmləri dövründə maraq çəkmiş və sürəti çıxarılmışdır. Məsələn, Flaman rəssam sənətçi Piter Kok (Pieter Cock), Bosun kompozisiyalarından etdiyi qravüraları dərc etdirmişdir.

Çarmıxa Çəkiliş

İnsan fiquru onu çox maraqlandırmaz:vücudun ağırlığına, həcminə və şəxsi detallara da diqqət etməzdi. Konturlarla göstərdiyi insan fiquru onun üçün yalnızca bir alət dəyəri danışır. Mənzərənin önünə adi şeylərmiş kimi qoyduğu şəxslər, həqiqətən bir rəsm məkanı içinə daxil edilməmişlərdir. Mənzərələrində, sanki bir qüllənin təpəsindən baxılmış kimi üfüq xətti yüksəkdir;eyni rəsmdə yer alan şəxslər isə, daha alçaq başqa bir üfüq xəttinə görə çəkilmişdir.

Şəhvət bağçası

Perspektivdəki bu iki yanlılıq və arxaik deyilə biləcək qədər uyğunsuzluqlar, baxanın gözündə düzgün bir dərinlik təəssüratı yaratmaz. Mənzərənin müxtəlif planlarının dərinliklərində xətt və rənglər incəliklə müəyyənləşdirilmişdir,amma bunlara baxmayaraq Bosun rəsmləri hər şeydən öncə dekorativ bəzəklərə bənzəyir. Çünki göz qamaşdırandır.

Müqəddəs Antonius

Dəqiqliklə seçilmiş mövzular içərisində, real varlıqlardan götürülmüş üzlərdən qurulma canavarlar yaratmışdır. Xəyal gücü ilə təbiətin qanunlarına qarşı çıxmış, insanla heyvan, insan ilə təbiət arasındakı fərqliliklərlə istehza etmişdir. Boş inanclardan və cəhənnəm qorxusundan yaranan şəkillərə qatdığı qəribə varlıqlara müəyyən bir həqiqilik qazandırmaqdakı ustalığı bənzərsizdir. Portretçi deyil, şəxslə maraqlanmaz, şəxsdəki anormallıqları, karikaturaya meyl edən yanları sevmirdi. Çəkdikləri zəif, solmuş üzlü, xəstə şəxslər idi. Xəyali varlıqları, qarabasmalardan çıxmış varlıqları, meyvə,quş və gənc qadın fiqurları ilə bir araya gətirirdi.

Səmaya uçuş

Bos astronomiya, sehrbazlıq və əl-kimya detallarında da istifadə etmişdir. Rəsmlərində bütövlük içindəki hər detal ayrıca bir məna daşımış, bütöv rəsmin özü isə bir növ rəmzdir.Naxışlar arxaik görüntülü, kəskin xəttlidir;boya texnikası isə, üst – üstə gələn incə şəffaf qatlardan ibarətdir. Medalyon və relyef edən bir heykəl ustası kimi profildən şəffaf görüntü yaratmışdır. Çəkdiyi bədənlər səth üzərində yastılaşdırılmış, dekorativ bir cəlbediciliyi olan siluetlər halındadır.

Dünyəvi Cənnət

Əşyaların öz rəngini istifadə etmiş, çox incə, zərif işıqlı tonlarla çalışmış, daha çox çəhrayı, solğun yaşıl, sarı qara və mavi rəngləri bir araya gətirmişdir. İncəsənət tarixində(xüsusilə öz dövrünə görə) boz rəng ustası olaraq bilinir. Onun bu boz əsərləri, boz detallarla qırılır və rəsmə bir məkan hissi, şeir anlamı qazandırır.

Yeddi Böyük Günah

Günümüzə çatmış 40-a qədər rəsmlərindən sadəcə 7-si imzalıdır və heç birinin də tarixi yoxdur. Bu səbəblə rəsmlərinin dəqiq bir sıralaması edilməyib. Əsərlərin böyük bir hissəsi İspaniya kralı II Filip tərəfindən toplandıqları üçün bugün Prado muzeyindədir.

Xəsisin ölümü

 

Mənbə: 1.http://www.istanbulsanatevi.com/sanatcilar/soyadi-b/bosch-hieronymus/hieronymus-bosch-1450-1516/

2.http://filozof.net/Turkce/edebiyat/edebi-sahsiyetler-kisilikler-biyografileri/40241-hieronymus-bosch-kimdir-hayati-eserleri-hakkinda-bilgi.html?showall=&start=1

Tərcüməçi:Bənövşə Su

Redaktə: Ziya Mehdiyev

82 ŞƏRH

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