Həyatda qalmamıza səbəb olan sürət:Sinir sistemimiz

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Məlumdur ki,sinirlərlə innervasiya(təchiz) olunmayan canlı toxumalar ölür. Bəs yaranan qıcıq sinirlərlə necə ötürülür?

Şübhəsiz ki, bu əlaqəni başa düşmək üçün sinir sisteminin fiziologiyasını, anatomik quruluşunu, orqanizmin biofiziki xüsusiyyətlərini bilmək vacibdir.Ancaq elmi-kütləvi üslubda məqalə olduğuna görə terminlərdən istifadə etməməyə çalışacam.

Sinir sistemində qıcığın qəbulu və cavabın verilməsi üçün bir qövs yaranır. Bu qövs refleks qövsü adlanır.

350px-anatomy_and_physiology_of_animals_a_reflex_arc_az
ŞƏKİL 1. Refleks qövsü

Deyək ki, ayağınıza isti su tökülür. Su molekulları ayağınıza dəyməmiş ilk qıcığı onun hiss olunan istiliyi-temperaturu yaradır. İndi bu istiliyin bizim sinir sistemimizdə necə qəbul olunduğuna baxaq. Reseptor deyilən qıcıq qəbul edən strukturlar tərəfindən adi qıcıq(məsələn istilik) impulsa-bir növ enerjiyə çevrilir.Bu enerjidə olan oyanmış hissə ilə oyanmamış hissə arasında  təsir fərqi yaranır. Hüceyrə xaricində(membranda) impuls oyanmamışdan-oyanmışa ,daxilində isə əksinə hərəkət edir. Sinir lifləri müxtəlif olsa da , bir çoxu naqillər kimi xaricdən izolyator deyəcəyimiz yağ tərkibli mielinlə örtülmüşdür(Şəkil 2) . Şəkil 2-də göstərildiyi kimi impuls Ranvye buğumlarından bir-birinə sıçrayışla ötürülür(mielinsiz membranlarda birbaşa olur).  Həmçinin impuls keçdiyi membrandakı yüklənməni polyarlıqdan(xaricdə müsbət ,daxildə mənfi yüklənmə) depolyarlığa doğru dəyişir.

 

figure-35-02-05
ŞƏKİL 2

 

Bir sinir hüceyrəsindən digərinə ötürülmə isə bir qədər fərqli baş verir. Prosesi neyronlar(sinir hüceyrələri) arasında olan sinaps adlanan struktur həyata keçirir. Bu ötürülmə 2 cür olur : elektrik və kimyəvi yolla. Elektrik yolu ilə ötürülməni 2 naqilin bir-birinə təmas etməsi kimi düşünün(presinaptik və postsinaptik membranların təması). Kimyəvi yolu isə Şəkil 3-də aydın göstərilib. Sinaptik yarıq deyilən boşluğa sintez olunan kimyəvi maddələrin molekulları(məsəələn asetilxolin və onun enerjisini təmin edən ATF) membranlarası hərəkət edərək oyanmanı ani sürətlə digər sinirə ötürür. Beləliklə bütün qövsü eyni şəkildə irəliləyən impuls  son mənzilə çatır(daha əvvəl baş və onurğa beyində hərəkətlə bağlı siqnal verilir) və siz ayağınızı çox yanmaqdan qoruyaraq geriyə çəkirsiniz. Bu o qədər çox böyük sürətlə baş verir. Mielinli sinir liflərində(digər tiplərdə fərqlidir) bu sürət 15-100 m/saniyə olur. Bu o qədər yüksək sürət kimi gəlməsin,nəticə etibarilə daha sürətli olsa idi öncədən çox şey duyulardı. Daha sürətli olmama səbəbi isə orqanizmin o qədər enerjiyə tab gətirə bilməməsidir.

 

 

 

ŞƏKİL 3
ŞƏKİL 3

 

FAYDALI  ƏDƏBİYYAT

-R.CƏFƏROV. BİOFİZİKA KURSU

C.GUYTON. TIBBİ FİZYOLOJİ

Human Physiology

Neurons & the Nervous System

 

MÜƏLLİF:ZİYA MEHDİYEV

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