Ağrı sindromu gündəlik həyatda rast gəlinən ciddi problemlərdən biri hesab edilir. Bununla belə ağrılar insanın iş qabiliyyətinə və yeni biliklərin mənimsənməsinə də mənfi təsir göstərir. Bu cür problemlərin həlli xüsusi, ağrıkəsicilər adlanan, dərman preparatları vasitəsi ilə olunur. Həmin preparatlar analgetiklər (yun. ἀνἄλγησις – ağrısız) adlanır.

Analgetiklər orqanizmin müəyyən toxumalarına seçici təsir göstərirlər. Təsir mexanizminə görə analgetiklər, bir qayda olaraq, nəinki ağrıkəsici kimi təsir göstərir, həm də hərarəti azaldan vasitələr kimi də istifadə olunurlar. Lakin başa düşmək lazımdır ki, bu tip dərman preparatları ağrı sindromunun yaranma səbəbini aradan qaldırmır, sadəcə xəstənin vəziyyətini yüngülləşdirir. Bununla belə, başa düşmək vacibdir ki, analgetiklərin təsir mexanizmi bədənə təzyiq göstərən xəsarət nəticələrinin aradan qaldırılmasında kömək edir. Nümunə olaraq, iltihabi xəstəlikləri misal çəkmək olar.

Analgetiklərin təsir mexanizmi

Bu qrup preparatları təsir mexanizminə görə iki yerə bölmək olar. Baş beyinə təsir göstərən analgetiklər və zədələnmiş ocağa bilavasitə təsir göstərən analgetiklər. Digər dillə desək, narkotik və qeyri-narkotik analgetiklər. Ən güclü analgetiklər baş beyinin opioid reseptorlarına təsir göstərən və bununla ağrı impuslarının mərkəzi sinir sisteminə ötürülməsinin qarşısını alan ağrıkəsicilər hesab edilir. Bu maddələr narkotik dərmanlara aiddir. Bu qrupun maddələri mərkəzi sinir sisteminə seçici təsir göstərərək onun bəzi mərkəzlərini sıxır (məs. ağrı, tənəffüs, öskürmə) və narkoz halını törətmir. Onları yalnız həkimin təyinatı üzrə qəbul etmək olar. Bu preparatları əldə etmək üçün xüsusi resept olmalıdır, çünki çox vaxt bu kateqoriyaya aid olan analgetiklərə qarşı vərdiş yaranır. Narkotik tərkibli analgetiklərin təsir mexanizmi çox sadədir – onlar sadəcə qan vasitəsi ilə beyinə daxil olur və ağrı hissini yatızdırır.

Geniş yayılmış ağrıkəsicilərə isə başqa tərkibli preparatlar aiddir. Bu sintetik dərman maddələridir. Onlar ağrıkəsici, iltihaba qarşı, qızdırma endirici və revmatizmə qarşı təsir göstərir. İnsanlar arasında bu preparatlar “baş ağrı dərmanı” kimi də  tanınır. Bu dərmanları xəstələr reseptsiz də əldə etmək imkanındadırlar. Onlar bilavasitə ağrı hissinin ocağına təsir göstərirlər. Beləliklə, preparatlar ağrının yerindəcə aradan qaldırılmasında köməklik edir. Bundan başqa, bu dərmanlar yuxarıda təsvir olunmuş opioidlərdən fərqli olaraq, heç bir asılılıq yaratmır (xəstənin psixoloji olaraq ağrıkəsicilərldən plasebo effekti yaratmaq kimi istifadəsini nəzərə almazsaq). Qeyri-narkotik analgetiklər əsasən nevralgiya xarakterli ağrılar zamanı (əzələ, oynaq, diş və baş ağrıları və s.) tətbiq olunur.

Asılılıq yaratmayan dərman vasitələrinin sayı bu gün kifayət qədər çoxdur. Ən çox istifadə olunan ağrıkəsicilərə parasetamol əsasında hazırlanmış dərman vasitələri aiddir. Parasetamol Ümumdünya Səhiyyə Təşkilatı tərəfindən, səmərəliyi və təhlükəsizliyinə görə etalon analgetik qəbul edilib və əsas dərman preparatları siyahısına daxil olunub.

Parasetamol sadə qeyri-narkotik analgetikdir, daha çox hərarətin salınması və baş ağrısının aradan qaldırılması üçün istifadə olunur. Onun fərqləndirici xüsusiyyəti mədə-bağırsaq sistemi və böyrəklərə əks təsirinin aşağı səviyyədə olmasıdır. Bundan əlavə, yüksək sorulma xüsusiyyətinə görə parasetamol qəbul etdikdən təxminən 15-30 dəqiqə sonra ağrı hissinin azalmasını müşahidə etmək olar.

Analgetiklərin qəbul qaydası

  • Analgetikləri təlimatda göstərilən maksimal yol verilən dozadan çox qəbul etmək qəti qadağandır. Bunun səbəbi mənfi nəticələrə gətirib çıxara bilər. Əks təsirlərin törətdiyi risk birbaşa preparatın dozasından asılıdır.
  • Analgetikləri hər zaman su ilə için.
  • Analgetiklərin qəbul formasını düzgün seçin. Daha çox istifadə qaydası peroral hesab olunur. Ancaq müxtəlif dərman preparatlarını digər yollar ilə də daxilə qəbul etmək olar. Bunu həkim sizə izah edəcəkdir.
  • Əgər siz ağrıkəsici vasitələrindən istifadə edirsinizsə, alkoqol qəbulundan imtina edin. Dərman və spirti içkilər bir yerdə qəbul olunmur.
  • Əgər ağrı sindromu həddindən artıq intensivdirsə, bu zaman maksimal birdəfəlik dozanı (sutkalıq deyil) dərhal qəbul etmək olar, nəinki kiçik dozalar ilə müxtəlif ağrıkəsicilərdən istifadə etmək. Bir neçə ağrıkəsicinin eyni zamanda qəbulu ağır fəsadlara gətirib çıxara bilər.

Bu qaydalara riayət etmək analgetiklərin qəbulunda əlavə təsirlərin riskini azaltmağa imkan verəcək. Baxmayaraq ki, parasetamol və ibuprofen əsaslı ağrıkəsicilər əlverişli və təhlükəsizdir, bundan əlavə reseptsiz də qəbuluna icazə var, yenə də mümkün ola biləcək riskləri minimuma endirmək daha yaxşıdır.

Mənbə:

“Фармакология” – Д. А. Харкевич 2005

Tərcümə etdi: Aynur Məmmədli

Redaktə etdi: Ziya Mehdiyev

94 ŞƏRH

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