Şəkərli Diabet nədir?

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Şəkərli diabet cəmiyyətimizdə məşhur olan, ad qazanmış xəstəliklərdən biridir. Tez-tez ətrafımızdakı insanlar arasında “şəkər olanlara” rast gəlirik. Bəs bu xəstəliyin belə adlandırılma səbəbi nədir? 1-ci və 2-ci tip diabet nə deməkdir? Xəstəliyə yoluxmamaq üçün nə edə bilərik?

Şəkərli diabet (lat. Diabetes mellitus) qanda şəkərin uzunmüddətli yüksək səviyyədə olması ilə xarakterizə olunan metabolik xəstəlikdir.

 

“Diabetes” yunan mənşəli sözdür və “keçmə” mənasını verir. Mellitus isə “bal kimi şirin” deməkdir . Sidiyin şirin dadmasına əsasən adlandırılıb . Belə ki, qədim müayinə üsulları arasında sidiyin dadına baxmaq geniş yayılmışdı.

 

Hər iki tipdə insulinlə bağlı problem vardır.

İnsulin mədəaltı vəzin hormonudur. Əsas gördüyü iş isə yeməklə aldığımız karbohidratların (çörək, düyü, qənd, şəkər tozu—şirin şeylər, un məmulatları və s.) həzmindən yaranan qlükozanın qandan hüceyrələrə keçməsini təmin etməkdir.

insulin

Hüceyrələrdə insulinə(açara ) uyğun insulin reseptorları(qıfıl) olur. Və insulin bu qıfılla qovuşanda hüceyrədə qlükoza kanalı (qapısı) açılır.

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Birinci və ikinci tip diabetlərin mahiyyətinə gəldikdə:

Birinci tip şəkərli diabetdə açar olmur ( daha doğrusu mədəaltı vəz hüceyrələri insulini normadan az sintez edir), ikinci tip şəkərli diabetdə isə açar olsa belə ya qıfıl ya da qapı xarab olduğu üçün qapı açılmır (GLUT-4 daşıyıcı zülalları fəaliyyətə başlamır). İkinci tip şəkərli diabetdə baş verən bu proses insulin müqaviməti adlanır. Odur ki, birinci tip diabetdə xaricdən açar( insulin) almaqla  (Diabetli xəstələrin qarınlarına vurduqları iynə) birtəhər qıfılı açmaq olsa da, ikinci tip diabetdə qıfıl problemli olduğu üçün məcburuq qapıdan çox istifadə etməməyə ( daha diqqətli pəhrizə). Beləliklə şəkər qandan hüceyrələrə keçə bilmədiyi üçün külli miqdarda qanda toplanır . Şəkərin yüksək miqdarı toksiki təsirə malikdir, odur ki, bu zaman şəkəri qandan uzaqlaşdırmaq üçün orqanizm onun sidiklə xaric edilməsinə çalışır, bununla da sidikdə qlükozanın miqdarı artmış olur.  ( son zamanlar 3-cü tip diabet adını almış patologiya Alzheimer xəstəliyi nəticəsində beyində insulin müqavimətinin yaranmasıdır.)

Yüksək qan şəkərinin əsas simptomları polydipsia (normadan yüksək susuzluq), polyphagia (normadan yüksək aclıq) ,bulanıq görmə, polyuria (normadan çox sidiyə çıxma) və qlükozuriyadır(sidikdə yüksək miqdarda şəkərin olması). Qeyd edək ki, saydığımız faktorlar ikinci tip şəkərli diabetə aiddir. Birinci tipdə yuxarıdakı simptomlardan əlavə letargiya (λήθη  (lḗthē, “unutqanlıq ”) + ἀργός ‎(argós,“işləməmə ”) yüksək yuxululuq və unutqanlıqla səciyyələnən patologiya) , ürəkbulanma, qusma,  dərin, səsli tənəffüsə də rast gəlinir, həmçinin bir sıra hallarda xəstənin ağzında aseton iyi gəlir.

 

Xəstəliyin səbəbləri aşağıda hazırladığımız şəkildə göstərilmişdir:

 

son-seker

 

Sağlam həyat tərzi ilə şəkərli diabeti bacardığımız qədər uzaqda tuta bilərik.

Müəllif: Gündüz Osmanlı

94 ŞƏRH

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