12 Angry Men Film Analizi

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1957-ci ildə o vaxta qədər görülməmiş sujetə malik bir film çəkildi. Bu filmi fərqli edən yalnız dialoqlar üzərində qurulması idi. `Dialoq filmləri` başlığını Hollivuda mənimsədən bu film, 12 Angry Men (12 Qəzəbli Adam) idi. Hal-hazırda IMDb-nin ən yaxşı filmlər siyahısında 8-ci yerdə olan film, həmçinin ən kiçik büdcəylə çəkilmiş ən yaxşı filmlər siyahısında 7-ci yerdədir. (350.000 dollar).2

Filmin rejissoru bu əsər ilə debüt edən, o vaxta qədər tanımadığımız Sydney Lumet idi. İlk filmiylə bu qədər ajataj yaradan Lumet, filmdə istifadə etdiyi üsullarla gələcəkdə filmin qızıl fonda düşməsinə səbəb oldu deyə bilərik. 12 Angry Men, Reginald Rose-un hekayəsi əsasında çəkilmişdi. O, həm də filmdə baş rolu ifa edən Henry Fonda ilə birlikdə filmin prodüseri idi.3

Film çox kiçik büdcə və minimum çəkiliş şərtləriylə çəkilmişdi. Belə ki, bəzi səhnələr yenidən çəkilməyə imkan olmadığı üçün ilk formasıyla filmə əlavə edildi. 2 həftə çəkiliş üçün məşqlər edildi və cəmi 20 günə çəkilişlər başa çatdı. Diqqətlə baxsaz görə bilərsiz ki, film boyunca həmişə eyni bucaq altından çəkilişlər aparılırdı. Yalnız yaxına və uzağa getmə müşahidə edə bilərsiz.546

Filmdə dövrün ABŞ qanunvericiliyinin dəstəklədiyi jürili məhkəmə sistemi bizə nümayiş etdirilir. Atasını öldürməklə ittiham olunan 18 yaşlı oğlanın taleyi 12 müxtəlif xasiyyətli adamın əlindədir. Bu adamlar uşağın qatil olub-olmadığını müzakirə edib qərarlarını məhkəməyə təqdim etməlidirlər. Dar bir otaqdakı insan psixologiyasını düzgün ifadə etmək üçün maraqlı üsula əl atmışdı. Otağı bizim görmədiyimiz xətlərlə çərçivəyə aldı. Heç bir aktyor həmin xətlərdən xaricə çıxa bilməzdi. Beləcə aktyorlar da film ərzində gərginlikdə qalırdı. Diqqətlə baxıb bunu görə bilərsiz.7

Henry Fonda, bu filmin çəkildiyi ən yaxşı film olduğunu demişdi. Premyerasından sonra gözlənilən gəliri gətirməyən filmə görə Fonda maaşını almadı və tələb də etmədi.

11 jüri oğlanın cinayətkar olduğundan əmin idi. Sadəcə 8-ci jüri (Fonda) insan taleyini belə asanca həll etməyi qəbul edə bilmir və beləcə amansız müzakirələr başlayır. Filmdə səhv məqam da var idi. Qanunvericiliyə görə jüri üzvü cinayət haqqında heç bir araşdırma apara bilməzdi. 8-ci jüri isə bunu edib cinayət bıçağına oxşar bıçağı tapmışdı.8

Qapalı sahədə çəkilən filmdə 12 aktyorun da mükəmməl ifası filmi şedevr etdi. Baxmayaraq ki, kastdakı yeganə məşhur Fonda idi. 12 jüridən yalnız ikisinin adını bilirik. (8-ci və 9-cu), lakin 10 jürinin sənəti filmdə bizə bildirilir (5-ci və 9-cu istisna olmaqla). Fonda, rejissoru pəncərələrin və döşəmənin köhnə və ucuz olduğuna görə tənqid etmişdi amma film eyni vasitələrlə çəkildi.10

Gedən müzakirələr uşağın məsum olmasına inananların sayının artması ilə müşayiət edilirdi. Filmdə bunun mesajlarını görə bilərik: əvvəl işləməyib sonradan işləyən sərinkeş, ilin ən isti günü olmasına baxmayaraq get gedə soyuyan hava bunlara misaldır.11

Aramsız müzakirələrdən sonra jüri yekdilliklə uşağın məsum olmasına qərar verir. Bütün güclü sübutlar bir-bir puç edilir. Maraqlı məqam da burasındadır ki, uşağın həqiqətdə məsum olması dəqiq deyil. Lumet bu suala heç vaxt cavab verməmişdi. Filmi izləyərkən diqqət etməli olduğunuz əsas məqamlardan biri də kamera üzərinə fokuslanmayan aktyorların da necə mükəmməl oynamasıdır. Belə faktı hər filmdə tapmaq mümkün deyil.9

12 nəfərlik jüridə qanunların icazə verməsinə baxmayaraq heç bir qadın və zəncinin olmaması tənqid edilmişdi. 1920-ci ildən qadınlara, 1930-cu ildən isə zəncilərə jüri olmaq hüququ verilirdi. Filmin 2-ci versiyasında da bu qayda pozulmadi və səbəb kimi adların dəyişdirilməsini istəməməkləri göstərildi. Bu filmi isə məşhur Exorcist filminin rejissor William Friendkin çəkmişdi.12

Filmi tənqid edənlərdən biri də Aqata Kristi idi. O, filmin polis və məhkəmə sistemini simvolikləşdirdiyini iddia edirdi. 1974-cü ildə Lumet, Kristinin də bir əsərini səhnələşdirərək müəyyən mənada xanımın kölnünü aldı.13

Şedevr əsər, ilin ən yaxşı filmi, ən yaxşı ssenari və ən yaxşı rejissor nominasiyalarında Oskara namizəd olmuşdu. Hər üç nominasiyada isə Oskarı Bridge on the River Kwai filmi aldı. Film bir çox sayılıb seçilən qurum tərəfindən illər keçsə də siyahılarda ön sıralarda qərarlaşır.14

 

MƏNBƏ: Kinozadə

 

70 ŞƏRH

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