Freyd və homoseksuallıq// Məktub

74

Freyd (Sigmund Freud) bütün dünyada məşhur olduğu zamanadək, yəni ölümündən dörd il əvvəl, amerikalı bir qadından oğlunun “problemlərinə” diqqət çəkən, tövsiyə üçün yazılmış bir məktub aldı. Məktubun Kinsey araşdırmalarının ictimaiyyətə açıqlanmasından 13 il əvvəl olmağına baxmayaraq, Freyd dövrünə görə homoseksuallığa baxışında olduqca moderndir. Təxmin edə biləcəyimiz kimi, o, bu vəziyyəti psixoseksual inkişafdakı durğunluqla əlaqələndirir. Bununla birlikdə, diqqət etməliyik ki, Freyd homoseksuallığın bir qüsur və ya xəstəlik olaraq təsnifləndirilməsinə şiddətlə qarşı çıxır, nevrozlarla qarışdırmağın absurd olduğunu deyir, hər hansı bir müalicənin uyğun və ya effektli olacağına şübhə duyur və uşağın xoşbəxtliyinin cinsi orientasiyasından daha önəmli olduğunu düşünür. Orta hesabla, 50 illik araşdırma sonrasında, ən çox yenilik gətirən psixoloqlar belə, bunun üstünə çox az şey əlavə edə bildilər. Nəzərə alsaq ki, Amerikan Psixiatrlar Dərnəyi 1973-cü ildə, Ümumdünya Səhiyyə Təşkilatı 1990-cı ildə homoseksuallığı xəstəlik siyahısından çıxarmışdı, tam əminliklə deyə bilərik Freyd əsl dahi idi. Əlində uyğun araşdırmaların nəticəsi olsaydı, yəqin ki, bəşəriyyət tarixi bu dəyişikliyi elə Freydin dilindən bilərdi.

9 Aprel 1935

Hörmətli ………..

“Məktubunuzdan oğlunuzun homoseksual olduğu nəticəsini çıxartdım. Onun haqqında verdiyiniz məlumatlardan çox, bu zaman özünüzdən söz açmamağınızla məni təsirləndirdiniz. Bundan niyə çəkindiyinizi soruşa bilərəmmi? Homoseksuallıq, əlbəttə, bir avantaj deyil, utanılması lazım olan bir şey deyil, qüsür deyil, rəzillik deyil, bir xəstəlik olaraq təsnif edilə bilməz; homoseksuallığın, cinsi inkişafın bir müxtəlifliyi olduğunu düşünürük. Keçmiş və müasir zamanların, bir çox hörmət qazanmış insanları homoseksual olmuşdur (Platonun, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci vb.). Homoseksuallığı günah olaraq görmək və qəddarlıq etmək də böyük bir haqsızlıqdır. Əgər mənə inanmırsınızsa,Ellisin (Havelocks Ellis) kitablarını oxuyun. (Freydin müasiri olan Ellis “Studies in Physcology of Sex” adlı 7 cildlik əsəri ilə məhşurdur.)

Düşünürəm ki, yardımımı istəməklə homoseksuallığı aradan qaldırıb, normal heteroseksuallığı (qarşı cinsə meyil) onun yerinə qoya bilib-bilməyəcəyimi nəzərdə tutursunuz. Ümumi olaraq, biz bunu bacarmadığımızı düşünürük. Əvvəlki təcrübələrin bir qismində hər homoseksualda var olan, amma zərər görmüş heteroseksual meyililikləri oyatmaq məsələsində uğurlu olduq. Ümumilikdə isə, təcrübələrin çoxu uğursuzluğa düçar oldu. Çünki bu insanın şəxsi xüsusiyyətləri və yaşı ilə bağlı bir şeydir. Müalicənin nəticəsini əvvəlcədən bilmək mümkün deyil.
Oğlunuzla bağlı ediləcək araşdırmalar fərqli olacaq. Əgər xoşbəxt deyilsə, nevrotikdirsə, mübahisələrdən çox yorulubsa, sosial həyatdan çəkinirsə, görüşlərimiz onun (istər dəyişsin, istərsə də homoseksual olaraq qalsın) üçün xoşbəxtlik, fərahlıq və daxili sakitliklə nəticələnə bilər. Əgər razı olsanız mənimlə görüşə bilər. Lakin razı olacağınızı düşünmürəm. Mən Vyanadayam, oğlunuz bura gəlməli olacaq. Çünki mənim başqa yerə getmək niyyətim yoxdur. Bununla belə mənə mütləq cavab yazın.

Hörmətlə və ən gözəl diləklərimlə, Freyd

Qeyd: Xəttinizi oxumaqda çətinlik çəkmədim. Ümid edirəm ki. əlyazmam və İngilizcə biliyim başa düşüləndir. (Johnes, 1963, sf 490)

Yazı libidodergisi.com-un bu məqaləsinin tərcüməsidir

 

Təcümə: Subhan Qulu

Redaktə etdi: Ziya Mehdiyev

74 ŞƏRH

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